Factors and Multiples : If a number a divides another number b exactly, we say
that a is a factor of b In this case, b is called a multiple of a.
Highest Common Factor (H.C.F.) or Greatest Common Measure (G.C.M.) or
Greatest Common Divisor (G.C.D.) : The H.C.F. of two or more than two numbers
is the greatest number that divides each of them exactly.
There are two methods of finding the H.C.F. of a given set of numbers :
Factorization Method : Express each one of the given numbers as the product of
prime factors. The product of least powers of common prime factors gives H.C.F.
Division Method : Suppose we have to find the H.CE of two given numbers. Divide
the larger number by the smaller one. Now, divide the divisor by the remainder
Repeat the process of dividing the preceding number by the remainder last obtained
till zero is obtained as remainder The last divisor is the required H.C.F Finding the H.C.F of more than two numbers : Suppose we have to find the
H.C.F. of three numbers. Then, H.C.F. of f(H.C.F. of any two) and (the third number)]
gives the H.C.F. of three given numbers.
Similarly, the H.C.F'. of more than three numbers may be obtained.
Least Common Multiple (L.C.M.) : The least number which is exactly divisible by
each one of the given numbers is called their L.C.M.
Factorization Method of Finding L.C.M. : Resolve each one of the given numbers
into a product of prime factors. Then, L.C.M. is the product of highestpowers of al]
Common Division Method (Short-cut Method) of Finding L.C.M. : Arrange the
given numbers in a row in any order Divide by a number which divides exactly at
least two of the given numbers and carry forward the numbers which are not
divisible. Repeat the above process till no two of the numbers are divisible by the
same number except 1. The product of the divisors and the undivided numbers is the
required L.C.M. of the given numbers.
Product of two numbers = Product of their H.C.F. and L.C.M.
Co-primes : Two numbers are said to be co-primes if their H.C.F. is 1.
H.C.F. and L.C.M. of Fractions :
1. H.C.F. =H.C.F. of Numerators L.C.M. of Denominators 2. L.C.M. =L.C.M. of Numerators H.C.F. of Denominators
H.C.F. and L.C.M. of Decimal Fractions : In given numbers, make the same number
of decimal places by annexing zeros in some numbers, ifnecessary. Considering these
numbers without decimal point, find H.C.F. or L.C.M. as the case may be. Now, in the
result, mark off as many decimal places as are there in each of the given numbers.
Comparison of Fractions : Find the L.C.M. of the denominators of the given fractions.
Convert each ofthe fractions into an equivalent fraction with L.C.M. as the denominator,
by multiplying both the numerator and denominator by the same number The resultant
fraction with the g-reatest numerator is the greatest.