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Q1. | The relationship between the del factor, temperature and time is given as |

A. | Δ = A.t. e^{-E/RT} [Correct Answer] |

B. | Δ = 1/(A.t. e^{-E/RT}) [Wrong Answer] |

C. | Δ = A.t. e^{E/RT} [Wrong Answer] |

D. | Δ = A.t.T [Wrong Answer] |

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Explanation:-
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**Also Read Similar Questions Below :**

⇒ The heated medium passes through a holding section, which is usually maintained in

adiabatic conditions

isothermal conditions

isotropic conditions

isobaric conditions

⇒ The mechanical means of accomplishing sterilization of fermentation media/equipment is

ultrasonic

radiation

chemical agents

none of these

⇒ The sterilization method depends

nature of additive

volume and feed rate

both (a) and (b)

none of these

⇒ The efficiency of fibrous filter by combined mechanism is given by(where η

_{imp},η

_{int},η

_{dif}are the efficiencies by impaction, interception and diffusion respectively)

1 - η

_{imp}η

_{int}η

_{dif}

1 - (1 - η

_{imp})(1 - η

_{int})( 1 - η

_{dif})

1 - ( η

_{imp}η

_{int}/η

_{dif})

None of the above

⇒ The del factor (Δ) increases as the final number of cells

decreases

increases

zero

constant

⇒ The heat conduction in dry air is

less rapid than in steam

more rapid than in steam

similar to steam

none of these

⇒ The reduction of number of cells from 10

^{10}to one will result into the del factor (Δ) of

1

10

23

10

^{3 }

⇒ The mechanism of air filtration in fibrous filter is

electrostatic attraction

impaction

interception

all of these

⇒ The relationship between the del factor, temperature and time is given as

Δ = A.t. e

^{-E/RT}

Δ = 1/(A.t. e

^{-E/RT})

Δ = A.t. e

^{E/RT}

Δ = A.t.T

⇒ The interception efficiency can be expressed as (where

*d*is the particle diameter and

_{p}*D*cylindrical collection diameter)

_{c}*d*/

_{p}*D*

_{c}*d*x

_{p}*D*

_{c}*d*/

_{p}*D*x 100

_{c}*d*

_{p}*D*/100

_{c}⇒ In sterilization process, spore of which of the following organism is considered as control?

*Bacillus subtilis*

*Clostridium botulinum*

*Bacillus stearothermophilus*

*Aspergillus niger*

⇒ For indirect heating, the plate and frame heat exchanger is generally more effective than the shell and tube heat transfer due to its

larger heat transfer area

smaller heat transfer area

lesser cost

more number of plates

⇒ For the turbulent flow, the dispersion coefficient is correlated as a function of

Reynolds number

Sherwood number

Schmidt number

Grashof number

⇒ The highest temperature which appears to be feasible for batch sterilization is

121°C

100°C

105°C

130°C

⇒ The specific death rate of an organism can be expressed as

ln 2/

*D*

*D*/ln2

*D*.ln2

2.0.3/ln2

⇒ The deviation from ideal plug flow due to axial mixing can be described by the

dispersion model

Langmuir model

Friedlander model

Pasceri model

⇒ The collection efficiency by the inertial impaction mechanism is the function of

Stokes and Reynolds number

Stokes and Schmidt number

Grashoff and Reynolds number

Stokes and Grashof number

⇒ If the packing density (α) is defined as the volume of the fiber unit volume of filter bed, the velocity within the filter void space is equal to (where

*V*is velocity in fluid void space and

*V*is undisturbed fluid velocity)

_{0}*V*=

*V*/(1-α)

_{0}*V-V*= 1 - α

_{0}*V*=

*V*(1 - α)

_{0}*V*=

*V*/(1 + α)

_{0}⇒ The collection efficiency by impaction increases with

increasing particle diameter

increasing air flow velocity

both (a) and (b)

increasing particle size

⇒ The filter material used for air filtration system is/are

glass wool

glass fibre

norite

all of the above

⇒ The collection efficiency by interception increases with the

increasing particle diameter

increasing air flow velocity

both (a) and (b)

increasing particle size

⇒ The

*X*value for a filtration system is

_{90}the time required to reduce microbial population by 90%

the time required to traverse survivor curve by one log cycle.

the depth required to reduce population by 90%

the depth of the filter required to reduce population by 99%

⇒ Analogus to the molecular diffusion, the x-directional flux of microorganisms suspended in a medium due to the axial mixing can be represented as (where

*J*is flux component '

_{n}*n*',

*c*is concentration of'

_{n}*n*')

*J*= -

_{n}*dc*/

_{n}*dx*

*J*=

_{n}*dc*/

_{n}*dx*

*J*= -

_{n}*D dc*/

_{n}*dx*

*J*=

_{n}*D dc*/

_{n}*dx*

⇒ The K used in the equation for

*X*

_{10}=2.303/K depends upon

nature of the filter material

linear velocity of the air passing through filter

both (a) and (b)

thickness of the filter

⇒ Typical aeration rates for aerobic fermentation are

0 - 0.5 vvm

0.5 - 1.0 vvm

1.0 - 1.5 vvm

1.5 - 2.0 vvm

⇒ The radius of the filter with a depth of 14 cm required for a volumetric airflow rate of 10 m

^{3}/min is approximately

1.6 m

0.6 m

3

6 m

⇒ The moist heat is more effective than the dry heat because the intrinsic heat resistance of vegetative cells is greatly

increased in a dry state

decreased in a dry state

increased in a wet state

decreased in a wet state

⇒ Model proposed by the Friedlander, correlating the air filtration efficiency by impaction can be expressed as (where

*N*is the Stokes number)

_{St}η

_{imp}= 0.075

*N*

_{St}^{1.2}

η

_{imp }= 0.75

*N*

_{St}^{1.2}

η

_{imp}= 0.25

*N*

_{St}^{1.2}

η

_{imp}= 0.025

*N*

_{St}^{1.2 }

⇒ The overall del factor (Δ) may be represented as

Δ

_{overall}= Δ

_{heating}+ Δ

_{holding}- Δ

_{cooling}

Δ

_{overall}= Δ

_{heating}+ Δ

_{holding}+ Δ

_{cooling}

Δ

_{overall}= Δ

_{heating}- Δ

_{holding}+ Δ

_{cooling}

Δ

_{overall}= Δ

_{heating}- Δ

_{holding}- Δ

_{cooling}

⇒ The destruction of microorganisms by steam may be described as

first order chemical reaction

zero order chemical reaction

second order chemical reaction

none of these