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Q1. | Sterilization can be carried out by |

A. | heat [Wrong Answer] |

B. | radiation [Wrong Answer] |

C. | chemical agents [Wrong Answer] |

D. | all of these [Correct Answer] |

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**Also Read Similar Questions Below :**

⇒ The reduction of number of cells from 10

^{10}to one will result into the del factor (Δ) of

1

10

23

10

^{3 }

⇒ Model proposed by the Friedlander, correlating the air filtration efficiency by impaction can be expressed as (where

*N*is the Stokes number)

_{St}η

_{imp}= 0.075

*N*

_{St}^{1.2}

η

_{imp }= 0.75

*N*

_{St}^{1.2}

η

_{imp}= 0.25

*N*

_{St}^{1.2}

η

_{imp}= 0.025

*N*

_{St}^{1.2 }

⇒ The moist heat is more effective than the dry heat because the intrinsic heat resistance of vegetative cells is greatly

increased in a dry state

decreased in a dry state

increased in a wet state

decreased in a wet state

⇒ The

*X*value for a filtration system is

_{90}the time required to reduce microbial population by 90%

the time required to traverse survivor curve by one log cycle.

the depth required to reduce population by 90%

the depth of the filter required to reduce population by 99%

⇒ The deviation from ideal plug flow due to axial mixing can be described by the

dispersion model

Langmuir model

Friedlander model

Pasceri model

⇒ The collection efficiency by impaction increases with

increasing particle diameter

increasing air flow velocity

both (a) and (b)

increasing particle size

⇒ The typical size of particles collected by diffusion mechanism is

<0.25μm

<0.5μm

<0.75μm

<1μm

⇒ The filter material used for air filtration system is/are

glass wool

glass fibre

norite

all of the above

⇒ The del factor (Δ) increases as the final number of cells

decreases

increases

zero

constant

⇒ Analogus to the molecular diffusion, the x-directional flux of microorganisms suspended in a medium due to the axial mixing can be represented as (where

*J*is flux component '

_{n}*n*',

*c*is concentration of'

_{n}*n*')

*J*= -

_{n}*dc*/

_{n}*dx*

*J*=

_{n}*dc*/

_{n}*dx*

*J*= -

_{n}*D dc*/

_{n}*dx*

*J*=

_{n}*D dc*/

_{n}*dx*

⇒ Sterilization can be carried out by

heat

radiation

chemical agents

all of these

⇒ For the turbulent flow, the dispersion coefficient is correlated as a function of

Reynolds number

Sherwood number

Schmidt number

Grashof number

⇒ The destruction of microorganisms by steam may be described as

first order chemical reaction

zero order chemical reaction

second order chemical reaction

none of these

⇒ The heat conduction in dry air is

less rapid than in steam

more rapid than in steam

similar to steam

none of these

⇒ The collection efficiency by the inertial impaction mechanism is the function of

Stokes and Reynolds number

Stokes and Schmidt number

Grashoff and Reynolds number

Stokes and Grashof number

⇒ For laminar flow of Newtonian fluid through a smooth round pipe, the ratio of average fluid velocity to the maximum velocity is

0.5

0.75

0.87

0.37

⇒ The overall del factor (Δ) may be represented as

Δ

_{overall}= Δ

_{heating}+ Δ

_{holding}- Δ

_{cooling}

Δ

_{overall}= Δ

_{heating}+ Δ

_{holding}+ Δ

_{cooling}

Δ

_{overall}= Δ

_{heating}- Δ

_{holding}+ Δ

_{cooling}

Δ

_{overall}= Δ

_{heating}- Δ

_{holding}- Δ

_{cooling}

⇒ The mechanism of air filtration in fibrous filter is

electrostatic attraction

impaction

interception

all of these

⇒ Typical aeration rates for aerobic fermentation are

0 - 0.5 vvm

0.5 - 1.0 vvm

1.0 - 1.5 vvm

1.5 - 2.0 vvm

⇒ The interception efficiency can be expressed as (where

*d*is the particle diameter and

_{p}*D*cylindrical collection diameter)

_{c}*d*/

_{p}*D*

_{c}*d*x

_{p}*D*

_{c}*d*/

_{p}*D*x 100

_{c}*d*

_{p}*D*/100

_{c}⇒ The collection efficiency by interception increases with the

increasing particle diameter

increasing air flow velocity

both (a) and (b)

increasing particle size

⇒ In sterilization process, spore of which of the following organism is considered as control?

*Bacillus subtilis*

*Clostridium botulinum*

*Bacillus stearothermophilus*

*Aspergillus niger*

⇒ The collection efficiency by diffusion increases with

decreasing particle size

decreasing air velocity

both (a) and (b)

increasing particle size

⇒ The relationship between the del factor, temperature and time is given as

Δ = A.t. e

^{-E/RT}

Δ = 1/(A.t. e

^{-E/RT})

Δ = A.t. e

^{E/RT}

Δ = A.t.T

⇒ The efficiency of fibrous filter by combined mechanism is given by(where η

_{imp},η

_{int},η

_{dif}are the efficiencies by impaction, interception and diffusion respectively)

1 - η

_{imp}η

_{int}η

_{dif}

1 - (1 - η

_{imp})(1 - η

_{int})( 1 - η

_{dif})

1 - ( η

_{imp}η

_{int}/η

_{dif})

None of the above

⇒ For indirect heating, the plate and frame heat exchanger is generally more effective than the shell and tube heat transfer due to its

larger heat transfer area

smaller heat transfer area

lesser cost

more number of plates

⇒ The value of K

increases with increase in air velocity

decreases with increase in air velocity

increases to an optimum with increase in air velocity and decreases on further increase of air velocity

none of these

⇒ The specific death rate of an organism can be expressed as

ln 2/

*D*

*D*/ln2

*D*.ln2

2.0.3/ln2

⇒ The K used in the equation for

*X*

_{10}=2.303/K depends upon

nature of the filter material

linear velocity of the air passing through filter

both (a) and (b)

thickness of the filter

⇒ The radius of the filter with a depth of 14 cm required for a volumetric airflow rate of 10 m

^{3}/min is approximately

1.6 m

0.6 m

3

6 m